Observer Data Usage - General


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General || Bycatch (overview) || Observer Program Conferences || Observer Program Workshops (specific topics)


(last updated 17-Feb-2016)


Abercrombie, D. L. 2012. Identifying Shark Fins: Oceanic Whitetip, Porbeagle and Hammerheads. IOTC-2012-WPEB08-INF03, Indian Ocean Tuna Commission. 

Abercrombie, D. L., D. D. Chapman, S. J. B. Gulak, and J. K. Carlson. 2013. Visual Identification of Fins from Common Elasmobranchs in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. NMFS-SEFSC-643

**Babcock, E. A., E. K. Pikitch, and C. G. Hudson. 2003. How much observer coverage is enough to adequately estimate bycatch? Pew Institute for Ocean Science, Miami, FL and Oceana, Washington D.C.

Bache, S. J. 2003. Bycatch mitigation tools: selecting fisheries, setting limits,and modifying gear. Ocean Coast. Mgt. 46:103-125.

Bache, S. J., and N. Evans. 2003. Fisheries Observer Programs: Lessons from a Global Review and Policy Options for Australia. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Fisheries and Aquaculture Business, Canberra.

Bakken, V. and K. Falk. 1998. Incidental Take of Seabirds in Commercial Fisheries in the Arctic Countries. CAFF Technical Report no. 1, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland.

Benaka, L. R., and T. Dobrzynski. 2005. The National Marine Fisheries Service's National Bycatch Strategy. Marine Fisheries Review 66:1-8.

Chardine, J.W., J.M. Porter, K.D. Wohl. 2000. Workshop on Seabird Incidental Catch in the Waters of Arctic Countries: Report and Recommendations. CAFF Tech. Report No. 7.

Davies, S. L., and J. E. Reynolds. 2002. Guidelines for developing an at-sea fishery observer programme. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper No. 414.:116 pp.

Delegation of New Zealand. 2006. Suggestion on data requirements on incidental capture of seabirds in fisheries of ACAP Parties. Submitted to the Second Meeting of the ACAP Advisory Committee, Brasilia, Brazil, June 5-8, 2006.

Didier, A. J., and V. R. C. (eds). 1999. Development of a process for the long-term monitoring of MMPA category I and II commercial fisheries: Proceedings of a workshop. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/OPR-14, NMFS, Silver Spring, MD.

**Furlong, W. J., and P. M. Martin. 2000. Observer deployment in the fishery and regulatory self-enforcement. In IIFET 2000 Proceedings. International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, Corvalis, OR.

Holland, D. S. 2007. Managing environmental impacts of fishing: input controls versus outcome-oriented approaches. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 7:255-272.

Lumsden, S. E., T. F. Hourigan, A. W. Bruckner, and G. Dorr, (eds.),. 2007. The State of Deep Coral Ecosystems of the United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP-3, Silver Spring MD.

Miller, T. J., J. R. Skalski, and J. N. Ianelli. 2007. Optimizing a stratified sampling design when faced with multiple objectives. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64:97-109.

**Mitchell, E. A. 2000. The necessity of observer programs in world's fisheries. In IIFET 2000 Conference Proceedings. International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, Corvalis, OR.

MRAG Americas, I. 2004. Fisheries Monitoring Technologies. Second draft (electronic) A Project Report Submitted to North Pacific Fishery Management Council, Anchorage, AK.

Long, K. J., and B. A. Schroeder, editors,. 2004. Proceedings of the International Technical Expert Workshop on Marine Turtle Bycatch in Longline Fisheries. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/OPR-26.

Macfadyen, G., T. Huntington and R. Cappell. 2009. Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, 185; FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, 523. UNEP/FAO, Rome, Italy: 155 pp.

NMFS. 2006. National Observer Program FY 2005 Annual Report. Dep. Commer. National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD.

**Nolan, C.P. (ed.) 1999. Proceedings of the International Conference on Integrated Fisheries Monitoring. Sydney, Australia, 1-5 February 1999. Rome, FAO. 378p.

Northridge, S. P. 1996. A review of marine mammal bycatch observer schemes with recommendations for best practice. Report No. 219, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Aberdeen, UK. 

**Parkes, G., and M. S. Kaiser. 2004. NMFS Fisheries Observer Coverage Level Workshop: Defining a Basis. NMFS, Seattle, WA.

Poisson, F., A. L. Vernet, B. Séret, and L. Dagorn. 2012. Good practices to reduce the mortality of sharks and rays caught incidentally by tropical tuna purse seiners. EU FP7 project #210496 MADE, Deliverable 7.2. IOTC–2012–WPEB08–INF07, Indian Ocean Tuna Commission.

Rivera, K. S., L. T. Ballance, L. Benaka, E. R. Breuer, S. G. Brooke, S. M. Fitzgerald, P. L. Hoffman, N. LeBoeuf, and G. T. Waring. 2014. Report of the National Marine Fisheries Service’s National Seabird Workshop: Building a National Plan to Improve the State of Knowledge and Reduce Commercial Fisheries Impacts on Seabirds. September 9–11, 2009. Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA. U.S. Dept. of Commer., NOAA. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-139, 78 p. 

Smith, M. H., and S. J. Baird. 2005. Representativeness of past observer coverage, and future coverage required for estimation of New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) captures in the SQU 6T fishery. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2005/39, Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand.

Turk, T. 2008. Observer programs around the world: Why do we need them? How do existing programs collect data? Which model will work for your program? in Proceedings of the 59th Annual Tuna Conference, Lake Arrowhead, California, May 19-22, 2008. NOAA Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Science Center.

Turner, J. 2012. Minimum Data Requirements for Assessing and Managing Seabirds. IOTC–2012–WPEB08–37, Indian Ocean Tuna Commission.

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

FAO Fisheries Statistics

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Alverson, D. L., M. H. Freeberg, S. A. Murawski, and J. G. Pope. 1994. A Global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards. FAO, Rome.

Alverson, D. L. 1998. Discarding practices and unobserved fishing mortality in marine fisheries: An update. Prepared for National Marine Fisheries Service, Natural Resources Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA. 76p.


Bull, L. S. 2007. Reducing seabird bycatch in longline, trawl and gillnet fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 8:31-56.


Burke, W. T., M. Freeberg, and E. L. Miles. 1994. United Nations Resolutions on driftnet fishing: An unsustainable precedent for high seas and coastal fisheries management. Ocean Development and International Law 25:127-186.

**Davis, M.W & C.H. Ryer. 2003. Understanding Fish Bycatch Discard And Escapee Mortality. AFSC Quarterly Report. 9p.


Gilman, E.L. 2011. Bycatch governance and best practice mitigation technology in global tuna fisheries. Marine Policy 35: 590-609. 

Gilman, E., K. Passfield, and K. Nakamura. 2012. Performance Assessment of Bycatch and Discards Governance by Regional Fisheries Management Organizations. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Gilman, E., P. Suuronen, M. Hall, and S. Kennelly. 2013. Causes and methods to estimate cryptic sources of fishing mortality. Journal of Fish Biology 83:766-803.


Hall, M. and M. Roman. 2013. Bycatch and non-tuna catch in the tropical tuna purse seine fisheries of the world. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 568, FAO, Rome.


ICES. 2007. Report of the Workshop on Discard Raising Procedures, 6–9 February 2007, San Sebastian, Spain. ICES CM 2007 ACFM:06.


Huang, H.-W. and Y.-M. Yeh. 2013. Incidental catch of seabirds: strengthening observer programs and increasing cooperation Animal Conservation 16:159–160. 


**Lewison, R. L., L. B. Crowder, A. J. Read, and S. A. Freeman. 2004. Understanding impacts of fisheries bycatch on marine megafauna. TREE 19:598-604.


Montevecchi, W. A. (2002). Interactions between fisheries and seabirds. Biology of Marine Birds. E. A. Schreiber and J. Burger. Boca Raton, CRC Press.


Myrick, A. C., Jr. 1986. Procedures for sampling dolphins: A handbook for shipboard observers. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SWFSC-62.


Neves, T., P. L. Mancini, S. O. da Silva, H. A. G. da Silva, and I. N. Martins. 2008. 1st South American Fishers Forum to Reduce the Incidental Capture of Seabirds, December 12-14, 2006, Delphin Hotel, Guaruja-SP, Brazil.


**NMFS. 1998. Managing the Nation's Bycatch. This comprehensive 1998 national bycatch plan, which had been out of print, was developed by NMFS with public comment over an 18-month period by a planning team made up of fisheries managers and scientists from all of the NMFS administrative regions.


NMFS. 2004. Evaluating bycatch: a national approach to standardized bycatch monitoring programs. U.S. Dep. Commerc. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-66, Silver Spring, MD. On-line version,


NMFS. 2005. NOAA Fisheries Reducing Bycatch 2005 Report. Silver Spring, MD.


Reeves, R. R., R. J. Hofman, G. K. Silber, and D. Wilkinson. 1996. Acoustic deterrence of harmful marine mammal-fishery interactions : proceedings of a workshop held in Seattle, Washington, 20-22 March 1996. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/OPR-10.


Uhlmann, S. 2003. Fisheries bycatch mortalities of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and short-tailed shearwaters (P. tenuirostris). DOC Science Internal Series 92, Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.


Wallace, B. P., R. L. Lewison, S. L. McDonald, R. K. McDonald, C. Y. Kot, S. Kelez, R. K. Bjorkland, E. M. Finkbeiner, S. r. Helmbrecht, and L. B. Crowder. 2010. Global patterns of marine turtle bycatch. Conservation Letters doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00105.x.


Young, N. M., and S. Iudicello. 2007. An evaluation of the most significant threats to cetaceans, the affected species and the geographic areas of high risk, and the recommended actions from various independent institutions. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-36.


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Observer Program Conferences

Anon. 2001. Proceedings of the Canada - US Fisheries Observer Program Workshop, June 26-29, 2000, St. John's Newfoundland. U.S. Dep. Commerce, Silver Spring, MD.


Credle, V. R., D. P. DeMaster, M. M. Merklein, M. B. Hanson, W. A. Karp, and S. M. Fitzgerald. 1994. NMFS Observer Programs: Minutes and Recommendations from a Workshop. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-OPR-94-1, NOAA, Galveston, TX.


Cornish, V., J. Alysius Didier, J. Nance, M. Tork, J. Lafargue, M. Toner, T. Turk, B. Donahue, B. Rogers, and E. David Kulka (eds.). 2004. Proceedings of the Third International Fisheries Observer Conference. NOAA Tech. Memo NMFS-F/SPO-64, U.S. Dep. Commerce, Silver Spring, MD.


**MCELDERRY, H., W. A. KARP, J. TWOMEY, M. MERKLEIN, V. CORNISH, and M. SAUNDERS. 1999. Proceedings of the first biennial Canada/U.S. observer program workshop, 113 p. NTIS No. PB99-146482.


McVea, T. A., and S. J. Kennelly (eds.),. 2005. Proceedings of the 4th International Fisheries Observer Conference, Sydney Australia, 8-11 November, 2004. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cronulla Fisheries Research Centre of Excellence, Cronulla, Australia.


McVea, T. A., and S. J. Kennelly (eds.),. 2007. Proceedings of the 5th International Fisheries Observer Conference, 15-18 May 2007, Victoria, BC Canada. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cronulla Fisheries Research Centre of Excellence, Cronulla, Australia.


OPWG. 2008. Observer Professionalism Working Group (OPWG). 5th International Fisheries Observer Conference Report. Edited by K.G. Davis and D.G. Quelch.


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Observer Program Workshops

Cox, David C. 2003. Plan to manage risks and minimize liabilities associated with the deployment of contracted fisheries observers. Final Report by QuanTech. Inc. on NOAA Contract No. 50-DGNF-1-90089. Available from the NOP.


Cusick, J., J. LaFargue, and G. Parkes. 2003 NMFS Small Boat Workshop - Summary. NMFS, Seattle, WA.


**Hansford, D.C. and V.R. Cornish (Eds.). 2003. Fisheries Observers Insurance, Liability and Labor Workshop. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-59. 102 p.


**Parkes, G., and M. S. Kaiser. 2004. NMFS Fisheries Observer Coverage Level Workshop: Defining a Basis. NMFS, Seattle, WA.


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